Much of the keep which can be seen in the city today dates from this period. Richard Grainger was said to 'have found Newcastle of bricks and timber and left it in stone'. Incorporated first by Henry II , the city had a new charter granted by Elizabeth in The federal structure of the University of Durham was dissolved. Close, Sandhill and Quayside contain modern buildings as well as structures dating from the 15th—18th centuries, including Bessie Surtees House , the Cooperage and Lloyds Quayside Bars, Derwentwater House and House of Tides, a restaurant situated at a Grade I-listed 16th century merchant's house at 28—30 Close.
Immediately to the northwest of the city centre is Leazes Park , established in  after a petition by 3, working men of the city for "ready access to some open ground for the purpose of health and recreation". In , Newcastle became the seat of an Anglican diocese , with St. Nicholas' Church becoming its cathedral. The population of Pons Aelius then is estimated at 2, It was eventually stormed "with roaring drummes" and sacked by Cromwell's allies. Durham's inland, less urbanised setting results in night-time temperature data about 1 degree cooler than Newcastle proper throughout the year. To the west of the city are the Upper Pennine Coal Measures and further west again the sandstones and mudstones of the Stainmore Formation, the local equivalent of the Millstone Grit. The phrase taking coals to Newcastle was first recorded contextually in In the s, about 7, out of 20, inhabitants of Newcastle died of plague , more than one-third of the population. Stairs from the riverside to higher parts of the city centre and the extant Castle Keep , originally recorded in the 14th century, remain intact in places. He was persuaded to sail a shipment of coal to Newcastle by merchants plotting to ruin him; however, his shipment arrived on the Tyne during a strike that had crippled local production, allowing him to turn a considerable profit. The pavilion is now being used as a microbrewery and concert venue for Wylam Brewery. The town was henceforth known as Novum Castellum or New Castle. The Military Vehicle museum closed in Richard Grainger was said to 'have found Newcastle of bricks and timber and left it in stone'. View of Newcastle City Centre from Gateshead. Narrow alleys or ' chares ', most of which can only be traversed by foot, still exist in abundance, particularly around the riverside. The spring time dawn chorus at 55 degrees latitude has been described as one of the best in the world. Charles I was imprisoned in Newcastle by the Scots in —7. Much of the keep which can be seen in the city today dates from this period. A corruption scandal was uncovered involving Smith and John Poulson , a property developer from Pontefract , West Yorkshire, and both were imprisoned. Broadcaster and writer Stuart Maconie described Newcastle as England's best-looking city   and the German-born British scholar of architecture, Nikolaus Pevsner ,  describes Grey Street as one of the finest streets in England. Established on classical streets built by Richard Grainger , a builder and developer, between and , some of Newcastle upon Tyne's finest buildings and streets lie within this area of the city centre including Grainger Market , Theatre Royal , Grey Street, Grainger Street and Clayton Street. Newcastle was successfully defended against the Scots three times during the 14th century, and was created a county corporate with its own sheriff by Henry IV in The ground beneath the city is formed from Carboniferous strata of the Middle Pennine Coal Measures Group—a suite of sandstones , mudstones and coal seams which generally dip moderately eastwards. The city has an extensive neoclassical centre referred to as Tyneside Classical  largely developed in the s by Richard Grainger and John Dobson , and recently extensively restored.
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