Similarly, we consider not only whether any contraception is used but also the method, method switches, method discontinuation, and so on. Religiosity may have a differential racial impact on both young sex and contraceptive use. The question of whether poor women should bear children is at the heart of some ongoing welfare debates e. Hypothesis 4 Contraceptive Use and Method Instability: Accordingly, we draw on the life course perspective to conceptualize the links among race, other sociodemographic characteristics, and sexual and contraceptive behaviors. An in-depth study of class and sexual behavior among college women found that young women from more-advantaged social backgrounds, who also had higher academic aspirations, delayed serious relationships and pregnancy in explicit recognition that their opportunity costs were high Armstrong and Hamilton For instance, respondents are at risk of using contraception to prevent pregnancy only if they are having sex. More serious fewer and longer relationships and more frequent sex within relationships. Young women with these experiences may seek out romantic relationships as an escape from a harsh life Cavanagh et al.
Please select one or more groups: More serious fewer and longer relationships and more frequent sex within relationships. Race was measured with the following question: First, we developed a rich set of measures integrating the relationships, sexual intercourse experiences, and contraceptive use of to year-old women over the first year of the RDSL study. The results presented in this article were comparable with those that included the remaining non-Hispanic groups either with whites or as a separate category. The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at Demography See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Poverty-related structural disadvantages in black neighborhoods—such as lower-quality schools, fewer churches, fewer community centers or associations, and generally less-cohesive local networks—may contribute to so-called ghetto-related behaviors, including teen and nonmarital pregnancy, among residents Anderson ; Wilson An in-depth study of class and sexual behavior among college women found that young women from more-advantaged social backgrounds, who also had higher academic aspirations, delayed serious relationships and pregnancy in explicit recognition that their opportunity costs were high Armstrong and Hamilton Legacy of Eugenics Although poverty may affect contraceptive use, given that poor women are less likely to have insurance 3 Ebrahim et al. This notion is supported by an empirical study of young black women who themselves said that gender imbalance was a reason they tolerated refusal to use condoms and nonmonogamous sexual behavior in their male partners Ferguson et al. More recent studies have also documented the persistence of these ideas Thorburn and Bogart The first component of data collection was a face-to-face baseline interview conducted between March and July , assessing sociodemographic characteristics, attitudes, relationship characteristics and history, contraceptive use, and pregnancy history. The massive forced sterilization of Puerto Rican women between and was funded by a U. On average, black women have their first baby much earlier than white women at age The specific analytic sample for each outcome is described in more detail in the next section. The involuntary sterilization of women receiving public assistance in the United States has been publically documented as recently as the s Boonstra et al. We hypothesize that three broad sets of factors may lead to these black-white differences in sex and contraceptive use: For instance, respondents are at risk of using contraception to prevent pregnancy only if they are having sex. Economic Opportunity and Attainment Because of higher rates of poverty, lower-quality early education, greater labor market discrimination, and residence in more-disadvantaged neighborhoods, black women tend to have less education, lower employment rates, and fewer opportunities for economic attainment than white women Avery and Rendall ; Conley ; Isaacs ; Oliver and Shapiro ; Orr ; Proctor and Dalaker Although teen pregnancy rates have declined dramatically among all racial and ethnic groups in the United States since their peak in the early s Kost and Henshaw , black teens have a pregnancy rate that is nearly three times higher than that of white teens Martinez et al. Contraceptive non-use is higher among black young people than white young people; and among users, black young people are less likely to report highly effective methods e. Black women were more likely to use less effective methods for pregnancy prevention e. Less frequent and less consistent contraceptive use. Provider bias in contraceptive counseling Dehlendorf et al. Accordingly, we draw on the life course perspective to conceptualize the links among race, other sociodemographic characteristics, and sexual and contraceptive behaviors. Although overall pregnancy rates are higher at older ages, unintended pregnancies—which have been targeted for reduction by Healthy People goals in , , and 1 —peak at these ages Finer and Zolna Hypothesis 1 Relationships and Sex:
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