Instead, registration is a mandatory collateral consequence of criminal conviction. In general, in states applying risk-based registry schemes, low-risk Tier I offenders are often excluded from the public disclosure. It will also include individuals who have been granted name suppression. In some states only the highest risk Tier III offenders are subject to public disclosure, while some states also include moderate-risk Tier II offenders in public websites. News reports in revealed that some registered sex offenders were living outside or under the Julia Tuttle Causeway in Miami, Florida because Miami-Dade County ordinances, which are more restrictive than Florida's state laws, made it virtually impossible for them to find housing. For example, residency restrictions will make it harder for a sex offender's spouse and children, not just a sex offender themselves, to find housing. All 50 states and District of Columbia maintain registries that are open to public via sex offender registration websites, although some registered sex offenders are visible to law enforcement only. A study found no evidence that New York's registry or notification laws reduced sexual offenses by rapists, child molesters, sexual recidivists, or first-time sex offenders.
While these disparities in level of public disclosure among different states might cause unexpected problems after registration, they have also caused some registrants to move into locations where public disclosure of lower level offenders is not permitted, in order to avoid public persecution and other adverse effects of public disclosure they were experiencing in their original location. The public does not have access to the registry; it is available to employers of people who work with children or mentally disabled people, to authorities responsible for licensing institutions that care for children or mentally disabled people, and to those responsible for approving foster care and adoptions. The study also showed that blocks in Washington DC where sex offenders lived did not have higher molestation rates than blocks where sex offenders did not live. A bill to create a publicly accessible registry for domestic violence offenders passed the Texas House of Representatives in , but was not voted on in the Texas Senate. For example, residency restrictions will make it harder for a sex offender's spouse and children, not just a sex offender themselves, to find housing. The Human Rights Watch organization criticized these laws in a page report published in ,  and in another report in In the United States offenders are often classified in three categories: In some jurisdictions, they cannot live within a certain distance of places children or families gather. In some states non-sexual offenses such as unlawful imprisonment may require sex offender registration. Montana, for example, has a publicly accessible violent offender registry that includes crimes such as aggravated assault, robbery, assaulting a police officer, both deliberate and non-deliberate homicide and a third conviction for domestic violence. The RCMP is responsible for the administration and maintenance of the database. Other countries do not make sex offender information public, unless the risk assessment has been conducted and the offender has been determined to pose a high risk of re-offending. However, since sex crimes are the most under-reported crimes,  whether or not the Department of Justice's 5. Instead, registration is a mandatory collateral consequence of criminal conviction. Recidivism rates only measure how many people return to prison or are arrested for a new offense and do not measure how many people actually commit a new criminal offense some criminals commit new offenses after release from prison but do not get caught. The thought of getting on the sex offender registry may or may not deter non-sex offenders from committing sex crimes. Determining the tier level and whether or not a person would be subject to public disclosure, when relocating to another state, can be close to impossible without consulting an attorney or officials responsible for managing registration in the destination state, due to constantly changing laws and vagueness in some states legislative language. All 50 states and District of Columbia maintain registries that are open to public via sex offender registration websites, although some registered sex offenders are visible to law enforcement only. Florida requires all felons, regardless of the crime, to register with law enforcement for 5 years after release, although the Florida felon registry is not available to the general public. Some states have Civic Confinement laws, which allow very-high-risk sex offenders to be placed in secure facilities, "in many ways like prisons", where they are supposed to be offered treatment and regularly reevaluated for possible release. Some states have disclosed some of Tier I offenders,  while in some states all Tier I offenders are excluded from public disclosure. Kansas has publicly accessible registries of people convicted of both serious drug offenses and people convicted of crimes involving a weapon. Facebook and Instagram prohibit any convicted sex offender from accessing or contributing to their websites. In the United States[ edit ] In some localities in the United States, the lists of all sex offenders are made available to the public: Public Safety in Action Time is of the essence for police when locating sexual predators and investigating crimes committed by these offenders. It will be managed by the New Zealand Police and information will be shared between the Police, Child, Youth and Family , the Department of Corrections , the Ministry of Social Development , and the Department of Building and Housing —government agencies which deal with child safety. Public Indecency , in violation of C.
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